Story of amnesiac who is able to dial her phone number
Amnesiac can remember skills learned (math, riding a bicycle) but do not recognize people. Story of pinprick.
Is priming using explicit or implicit memory?
Word completion tasks:
Amnesics shown evidence, window, telephone
Speed up of performance for evi________ although no explicit memory.
Priming in normals also shows speed up of performance before awareness.
Retention of priming effect
In word completion task:
Students copy 100 words and judege words for familiarity
Tested with word fragments from studied words and new words
evidence for long term retention of priming effects.
No context: XXXX cold
Context hot cold
Generate (hot antonym) cold
(in generate, s’s explicitly generated the antonym for hot
Identification: Read word as quickly as possible (implicit memory test)
Recognition: Recognize whether word was on the list (explicit memory test)
Performance (graph on p. 105)
Difference between implicit and explicit memory:
Identification is best with no context and worst with generation
Recognition is best when generated and worst with no context.
People take credit for solutions they didn’t produce.
Frequency of exposure:
We like items that we have seen frequently even if we don’t know which items we have seen more frequently.
(examples: exposure to different races, genders)
Implications for advertising.
Implicit learning of artificial grammars
After studying grammars, subjects can not explain the rules to generate grammars, but
1)They learn new sequences that follow the rules of the grammar faster than random strings.
2) They recognize the strings from the grammar faster
3) Transfer knowledge to new sets of strings that use similar constructions
1) rule learning: acquire some of the rules implicitly
2) individual exemplars: learn from individual strings shown
3) chunks or letter combinations: acquire small chunks of regularly repeated strings
We learn abstractions
We see rules or patterns
We learn correlations between events